Sunday, February 23, 2020
Competitiveness of HK Cruise Tourism - Essay Example I identified that I will have to improve my confidence level which will in turn improve my communication and socialization skills. I am reserved and introvert in nature which makes it difficult for me to socialize with people and open up easily. To establish a successful career as a hotel manager in the cruise tourism industry I will have to possess excellent communication skills and a pleasant personality. I believe I have a positive personality but my inability to communicate smoothly makes it difficult for me to express my personality in my behaviour. To work in the position of a hotel manager and ensure the future development of my career, I will focus on enhancing my communication abilities and the ability to understand and respond to what other people have to say. This will help me in the future to manage the customers in the cruise where I would work as a hotel manager. The position of a hotel manager would, call for a friendly, outgoing, pleasing and helpful personality. Thus I will have to improve on these skills. Also, I will have to improve on my ability to communicate with other team members and to manage a team as I will have to manage a group of people working under me in my work. I will have to communicate wi th the customers, teammates and personnel in other departments. Therefore, I will have to install more confidence in my speaking and communicating abilities. A considerable level of empathy and ability to establish rapport with the customers and fellow workers would help me in the future development of my career. The essay is aimed at studying and evaluating the different aspects of the Hong Kong cruise tourism industry. The study is prepared by providing a suitable background to the Hong Kong tourism industry encompassing the different aspects of the tourism and hospitality sector in Hong Kong and the evolvement of the Hong Kong cruise industry through the establishment of terminals and other infrastructures. I have
Thursday, February 6, 2020
Literary Criticism on the novel Atonement by Ian McEwan - Essay Example This essay discusses that from a formalistic theory of literature vantage point, the way in which McEwan uses grammar and syntax is developed to create a definitive undertone for the story and characters. As Briony is introduced, the writing has a tempo that is a bit staccato. One can feel her personality through the overuse of adjectives and descriptivism in order to emit the precocious, dramatic personality of a thirteen-year-old girl embroiled in the complexity of experiences that she was not yet able to process. Ã¢â¬Å"Briony was hard to know it then, but this was the project's highest point of fulfillment. Nothing came near it for satisfaction, all else was dreams and frustration.Ã¢â¬ In conclusion, as the story is told, the use of words creates the proper moods and enhances the characterizations. As the consequences of actions are played through, the dilemma of the writer is characterized. Ã¢â¬Å"The problem these fifty-nine years has been this: how can a novelist achieve atonement when, with her absolute power of deciding outcomes, she is also God?Ã¢â¬ As the reader becomes involved and inserts his or her own experiences into the consequences of the novel, nuances of viewpoint change the way in which the reader will respond. As well, the universal symbolism that utilizes helps to clearly define the journey that is undertaken. As the different literary theories are examined in context, the novel, Atonement, by Ian McEwan becomes a tapestry of emotional content that touches on universal themes.
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
The Life of Jonathan Swift Essay Life has always been filled with people who have given much in their lives to contribute to the betterment of society. They surpass the boundaries that have been set by the government and the people around them, just to make a difference in the world. One of these people was Jonathan Swift. Jonathan Isaac Bickerstaff Swift was born on November 30, 1667 in Dublin, Ireland. He was the only son and second child of Abigaile Erick Swift and Jonathan Swift. Since he was named after his father, he was often called Jonathan Junior or simply Junior. Before he was born, JonathanÃ¢â¬â¢s father died. His other relatives were of great assistance just so he could have a good education (Incompetech website, n. d. ). In 1686, he was able to graduate from Trinity College in Dublin. He immediately went to England to open new doors, and was fortunate enough to be accepted as the secretary of Sir William Temple. Living with Sir William paved way for Jonathan to meet a young lady, who later became an important part of his life. He met Esther Johnson and became her tutor. In between his sessions, he would scribble down his thoughts and ideas, but eventually burned them. Upon Sir WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s death, Jonathan was jobless and eventually became a fashionable satiric writer for Dublin (Incompetech website, n. d. ). Soon after, Stella, as he fondly called her, moved to Ireland just so she could be near him. Their relationship was a source of all gossips in town, because of their difference in age. Some said that the two lovers were even married in 1716. When Stella died in 1728, Jonathan Swift was desolated, and hid a lock of the lady loveÃ¢â¬â¢s hair in his things until the day he died (Pegasos, 2000). His political ambitions were never taken aside. When Queen Anne was in position, Jonathan became the vicar of Kilroot. He then wrote for the Tattler, a newspaper, from 1708-1709. His writing skills were tested further when he became one of the founders of the Scriblerus Club. He worked together with the Pope, Congreve, and Robert Harley (Pegasos, 2000). The years 1713 Ã¢â¬â 1742 were the years when Jonathan was dean of the St. Patricks Cathedral. He became deaf in his early twenties, and many people thought that he was insane. During one of his conversations with Edward Young, he said that he would be mentally incapacitated when he reached the age of fifty. Basically he was ready to face this mentally challenging state early on in his life (Pegasos, 2000). He died on October 19, 1745 in Dublin Ireland due to Alzheimers disease. He died leaving behind his legacy through the numerous poetries and proses written in pamphlets (Pegasos, 2000). 1726 was another great year for Jonathan Swift. This was the time when he wrote and published the famous prose entitled, Gullivers Travels. At first reading, the book may be classified as a childrens book, although the writer had an underlying meaning behind each even in Gullivers life. The book showcased most of Jonathans feelings and emotions about the social problems at that time (Incompetech website, n. d. ). One of Jonathans works was evident in the proposal he wrote about the children in 1729. Entitled, Ã¢â¬Å"A Modest Proposal: For Preventing The Children of Poor People in Ireland From Being Aburden to Their Parents Or Country, and For Making Them Beneficial to The PublicÃ¢â¬ (Art-Bin, n. d. ), focused on how the children of their time suffered the hardships in life. From the title alone, we can see that Jonathan wanted the children to live normal lives before they had to endure the hardships and realities of life. His main purpose in writing the proposal was to help uplift the lives people had in their society at that time. He had no children of his own, so the proposal he wrote was not of great bearing to his life. All he wanted was for people to first realize that the children should not be placed in situations that could ruin their lives, and eventually their futures (Art-bin, n. d). Although Jonathans book, Gullivers Travels, was well received by many, he always stood for his beliefs and oppositions on the inequalities of the government towards his native land. When he finally decided to run for politics, he kept his distance form the Whig and Tory parties. He wanted to be individually known for his works and accomplishments, other than the association that may be given to him by either parties. His writings were mostly satiric, meaning they made use of sarcastic words, and exposed the hard realities of their life at that time. Although the book was creative in manner and well suited for children, many were alarmed by his writings, for they opened new ideas for people (Westchester University, n. d. ). His writings were not only isolated to proses. He also participated in writing papers involving ecclesiastical matters, such as the Ã¢â¬Å"Three Sermons and PrayersÃ¢â¬ , which he wrote in 1744. Some of his other works were included in his book, The Ã¢â¬Å"Writings on Religion and the ChurchÃ¢â¬ , which was finally published in 1898 (Merriman, 2008). It was said that Jonathan had published a collection of his works three years before he slipped into senility. Eventually, he suffered from a paralytic stroke in 1738. The people close to him started to care for the ill Jonthan Swift. In 1742, his belongings and affairs were soon cared for by appointed guardians (Victorian Web, 2000). His life was lived to the fullest, and he made sure that people remembered him as someone who had hoped for the upheaval of society in Ireland. He left behind his legacy through the numerous poetries and proses he wrote in pamphlets. He died on October 19, 1745 in Dublin Ireland due to Alzheimers disease. (Pegasos, 2000). Jonathans remains were laid beside his beloved wife, Stella, inside the St. Patricks Cathedral in Dublin, Ireland (Merriman, 2008). With his own epitaph written, Jonathan became successful in accomplishing his dreams of being a well known person. He is in fact, forever remembered by his countrymen and of the whole world, forever. Jonathan Swift may have suffered before he died, but he was able to open the eyes of the people to the reality that was happening right before their eyes. He was an enemy to some, but an inspiration for many. His works will forever be present to inspire us and the children of the future to go on and be someone. References (. n. d. ). Jonathan isaac bickerstaff swift. Incompetech. Retrieved May 2, 2008 from http://incompetech. com/authors/swift/. West Chester University. (n. d. ). Jonathan swift: A modest proposal 1729. Retrieved May 2, 2008 from http://courses. wcupa. edu/wanko/LIT400/ireland/jonanthan_swift. htm (2007). Ireland. MSN encarta. Retrieved May 2, 2008 from http://encarta. msn. com/encyclopedia_761566701_9/Ireland. html. (n. d. ). A modest proposal. The art bin origo. Retrieved May 3, 2008 from http://art-bin. com/art/omodest. html (2000). Books and writers. Pegasos. Retrieved May 3, 2008 from http://www. kirjasto. sci. fi/jswift. htm (2000). A chronology of jonathan swifts life. The victorian web. Retrieved May 5, 2008 from http://www. victorianweb. org/previctorian/swift/chron. html. Merriman, C. D. (2008). Jonathan Swift. The literature network. Retrieved May 5, 2008 from
Monday, January 20, 2020
Mood and Atmosphere of The Pity of Love, Broken Dreams, and The Fisherman The Pity of Love is a short, relatively simple poem, yet it still manages to create a feeling of anxiousness, of desperate worry. Yeats achieves this in only eight lines of average length by extremely careful and precise use of language and structure. The poem begins with the line "A pity beyond all tellingÃ¢â¬ ¢, immediately setting the general tone and basic point of the piece, elevating his despair to its highest levels and plunging the poem into the depths of depression and failure; before it has barely begun, Yeats is already admitting defeat, after a fashion, claiming that this pity is so terrible he is unable to properly describe it. The folk who are buying and selling, The clouds on their journey above, The cold wet winds ever blowing, And the shadowy hazel grove Where mouse-grey waters are flowing, These pastoral images are all part of an ordinary rural life, something for which Yeats always strived. However, unlike his usual praising of these elements of life, this time he presents them in a distinctly downbeat way, emphasising the negative aspects, and becoming darker and darker in tone with every successive example - the wind is "coldÃ¢â¬ ¢ and "wetÃ¢â¬ ¢; the clouds are assumed to be storm clouds from the juxtaposition of the description of the wind straight after the description of the clouds; the hazel grove is "shadowyÃ¢â¬ ¢ and the water is "mouse-greyÃ¢â¬ ¢. These are all very washed-out, colourless, cold adjectives that refect the depressed nature of the narrator. The image of somewhat frantic movement conveyed by the use of the words "buying and sellingÃ¢â¬ ¢, "journey aboveÃ¢â¬ ¢, "ever blowingÃ¢â¬ ¢ and "?owingÃ¢â¬ ¢ represent the inner ... ...anza helps to contribute to the unplanned feeling, and the constantly shifting focus gives an almost Ã¢â¬Ëstream-of-consciousness' feel to the proceedings. As indicated by the title, this is a sombre poem, due to its subject matter, but it is not a bitter poem; in fact, in places, it is very romantic, particularly the third stanza: The certainty that I shall see that lady Leaning or standing or walking In the first loveliness of womanhood, And with the fervour of my youthful eyes, Has set me muttering like a fool. It is as if Yeats has finally accepted Gonne's rejection and is no longer tormented by it. He is much more at peace writing Broken Dreams than with his other Maud Gonne poems. Whilst he still finds his life understandably sad, he no longer expects her to change her mind and, accordingly, he does not write a depressingly bitter poem.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Both discussing struggles in life, these two memoirs, Pursuit of Happyness and the Glass Castle showcased the way to embrace life with absolutely no fear. They both provided ideals and showed that nothing is impossible with the use of right and appropriate attitude towards the quest for success. Both are true stories based on life of successful individuals in America. The Pursuit of happiness tackles the life of Chris Gardner, a salesman of bone scanner who turned to be a stock broker. This story can be considered as a modern day fairy tale set in a realistic world. This is no different compared to other success stories. The plot is basically structured to show the trend of rugs to riches. But what separated this story from others is the series of unfortunate circumstances and continuous lack of options. At the end, the choice made has always been to proceed with the chosen track with courage. On the other hand, The Glass castle discussed the story of horrendous childhood of Jeanette Walls, who later became a journalist. The book shows two polarity of human experience along the story of her family: first, the given life which they do not control; and second, the track of life they had chosen and fought for. The given life pertains to JeanetteÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood where she experienced bad situations with her family while they keep on transferring to different locations. Frequently, these complex canonic novels are bound with the stories with the relationships they had with the family. The struggles are either quest to free them from poverty and consequently lift their loved onesÃ¢â¬â¢ lives as well or the quest for dreams that they are meant to achieve. The family as an element of the story will provide the touch of power or inspiration for the main character to achieve. Taking a look at these two books, apparently, they both have this story element. The family of Chris Gardner is neither complex nor at ease. It is the typical Ã¢â¬Å"husband- wife- one childÃ¢â¬ New York family. Economically wise, the family is financially challenged due to the instability with their income. The couple is both working at day making them decide to send their son to a day care center. The problems they are encountering sometimes leads to arguments between Chris and his wife. At one of the heated arguments, his wife decided to leave him. This departure is the touch of the story for either the biggest downfall of the main character or the touch of breaking point for his upcoming success. The only one left for Gardner is his son, and as mentioned above, the child served as the sole source of his inspiration. From that point, he experienced the worst parts of his life as told in the narration. He became homeless- he carries all his and his sonÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes along way and facing the fact that they are alone and can only rely with each other. Their schedule and budget became so tight that only a little mistake will make their situation drastically worse. In one instance, when they missed a bus ride, they also missed the stay in the place for homeless where they are regularly staying. While the Pursuit of Happyness has a little bracket of time setting used in its storytelling, the Glass Castle started from the childhood of the character. It showed the picture of the family, where Jeanette is involved, as not much functioning. Her father is alcoholic and her mother shows poor in handling the family and plays to be so childish. One thing cannot be denied though. These parents love their kids so much. Jeanette, as the narrator and the second oldest child in the family shows his solid belief with her parentÃ¢â¬â¢s desires not to send them to any form of harm and secure them with all their needs as long as they could. She believes that his father, Rex, is worthy of respect. She never lose the optimistic perception that if her father is not drunk, it will reveal his true side that he is caring for the children and just turned to alcohol out of despair from embarrassment and disappointment. The kids had hard time when they are crossing the countries to find a new place to stay. They are like nomads popping up in several different places and added to that are the behavior of their parents who are mildly psychologically ill. Their mother, Rose Mary is an artist at heart and was known to be childish at some point. There is a scene when she was caught hiding candies which make her gain weight. She went mad like a child when her kids learned about it. What made this mad is the fact that during those days, her children are in fact experiencing starvation and she still chose to hide food from them. Looking at these characters, it is obvious that the roles they have for the story as a whole are crucial in shaping the latter status of the main character. The characters are element of the story that provides the touch of human experiences. It is important to notice that every character in a story doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just serve differently when it comes to their role but they also vary with the way they are presented according to the power they are contributing with the plot and the storyline. Perhaps, this is measured with the way and with the degree of their impact on the story and other characters. Emphasis on the characters can be leading for there are characters that are more exposed throughout the tale but have less significance with the essence of the story. Comparing these two memoirs, there can be assumptions that the set of characters in the Glass Castle shows strength more vivid than the set of characters in Pursuit of Happyness. The characters of Pursuit of happiness are dynamic humans but the picture of supporting characters of the Glass Castle shows a wider range of human tendencies. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily mean though that the characters of the latter are worth being followed than the characters of the former. Analyzing the two main characters, Chris Gardner and Jeanette Walls, there is one common characteristic between them- optimism. They are similar to Helen Keller, who prefers to see good things but not necessarily ignore those bad things. What they are doing is to move straight towards the path they have chosen despite those bad things. If we are to put that mindset into metaphor, it is about treating the obstacles and negativity as cheerleaders that are necessary to boost their hype of desire towards success. It is common that there are psychological pressures to ensure that the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s security is sustained and assured. And with these two main characters, indifference had been the key. This serves the fact that whoever you were doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t define who you are going to be instead whoever you were doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter in the future (Murray & Fortinberry: 14-17). Chris Gardner is a composed man who has subtle knowledge about boundaries Ã¢â¬â boundaries that he has and boundaries that other people has. To prove this, along the argument he has with his wife, there was a neighbor who is trying to clean a rug and the dusts are all in the air. Being disturbed, Chris confront that guy and tell him to stop it for there are people trying to talk. This certain part of the story shows how Chris knows what he deserves in life although this given example is so subtle since it only talks about dusts and a rug. Later, his neighbor counter argues and continued cleaning. Chris was silenced but what shows here is not defeat but the strength of the character as someone who has a solid knowledge about his limitation as a neighbor, as an individual. Jeanette Walls, on the other hand, was remarkable because more than just her intelligence, she also has guts to get out from poverty without blaming others such as her parents. Her family supplied the role of somehow similar to a typical antagonist in a novel. But this is not how it was perceived in this memoir. The parents, throughout the novel, showed the picture of being irresponsible. The family is in the poverty line. These are both valid reasons for a child to hate the situations where they are involved. Surprisingly, Jeanette is not that kind of child or to be exact, she is the complete opposite of that. Unconditional love has been a subject for romantic fictions but seldom that it was used in the context of a family. The way it was shown is remarkably skilled. Jeanette, indeed, grew up as a learning machine that gains knowledge and used them to endure all the obstacles she is facing in her life. Like what was mentioned, the supporting character of the Glass Castle has added an unusual texture on the story. This happened because the characters were introduced with diversified tendencies. Rose Mary was inclined to art and is a brilliant woman. Later, it was revealed that due to some issues with her husband, she started to act childish. This shift with the mother will only contribute to the failure of their family. One significant key point in both stories is the concept of fatherhood. Fatherhood is a common subject for art pieces not just for literature. Patriarchy is a social phenomenon that needs to be handled with enough care for this is more than just an issue of individuality or masculinity but more on its social context. There are two dimension of fatherhood: First, the role as a father to children and second, the role as the husband. Contract theories had been applied in the field of social sciences to analyze each role further. Moreover, it has its political and social considerations mostly. In relation to paternal politics, in reference to the works of Robert Goodin and Philipp Pettit, in the separate story of Gardner and Walls, the dimension that was mostly tackled is the paternal role of fatherhood. The main difference is the direction of the issue in relation to the social environment. There are no issues between Chris and his son. The issues in the story are just directed on them from the outside social environment. Poverty is one situation which is characterized by being homeless, jobless and frequent starvation. This fatherhood example is a showcase of paternal situation that was determined by the outside factors. The direction of the issue is different in the case of Walls. Jeanette has issue with her father, whether she is indifferent of it or not. What remained clear is that the dynamics of the role of her father was ruined by depressions. It consequently ruined the social environment which is the family. This issue was even amplified when the father turned into alcohol as a defense mechanism for all their mishaps. This patriarchal politics had been one of the central ideas of both memoirs and is crucial in understanding the thought of them. Chris Gardner is a hero for his son, Christopher. This is a strong indicator of his paternal polarity. The track that Chris took is solely devoted for them. This shows that whatever is going to happen to anyone of them, the effect will be on both of them. This tie between the two is exquisitely shown in the book without any usage of sentimentality and without using too much romanticism. In the case of Jeanette Walls, the idea of paternal hero is also significant. Her wish to have a hero father is not repressed. For her, it is the reality that she is seeing. His father is more than just a drunkard but a loving individual to her and the rest of her family. In this perception, apparently, the idea of hero father is more realistic in the story of Pursuit of Happyness. There remained an interesting idea that what Walls is conceiving or perceiving is a better or even absolute symbol of a more perfect fatherhood. Both stories are carefully written which secured the hook it can make to those who are after self-improvement. After all, these are just memoirs which are supposed to provide the stories that are personally addressed. But in the history of this form of literature, we canÃ¢â¬â¢t ignore the fact that people are meant to be inspired by them and consequently change their selves. Works Cited Gardner, Chris and Troupe Quincy. the Pursuit of Happyness. MI: Amistad. (2006). Walls, Jeanette. The Glass Castle: A Memoir. NY: Scribner (2005) Murray, Bob and Fortinberry, Alicia . Creating optimism. USA: Mc Graw Hill (2004) Goodin,Robert and Petit,Philip. Contemporary political philosophy. MA: Wiley Blackwell (1997) University of Oklahoma. World Literature Today. OK: University of Oklahoma Press. (1999)
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2489 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Narrative essay Level High school Did you like this example? Olympia College, Ipoh Executive Diploma in Business Management Introduction What is organization behaviour? It is commonly referred to as OB which is an interdisciplinary field dedicated to better understanding and managing people at work. OB is an academic designation. With the exception of teaching or research positions, OB is not daily job category such as accounting, marketing or finance. OB is a horizontal discipline that deducts across virtually every job category, business function and professional specially. A historical perspective of the study of people at work helps in studying organization behaviour. According to a management history expert, this is important because Historical perspective is the study of a subject in light of its earliest phases and subsequent evolution. Historical perspective differs from history in that object of historical perspective is to sharpen oneÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s vision of the present, not the pass. In other words, we can better understand where the field of OB is today and where it appears t o be headed by appreciating where it has been. With this assignment, let the researcher identify and describe the dominant values of in todayÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s workforce by cohort with relevant theories and examples in question one. Secondly, the researcher needs to give three common decision-making biases that encountered in organization following by the errors involved, the circumstances and the effects of these biases towards the outcomes of the situations in question two. Describe the dominant values of todayÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s workforce by cohort with relevant theories and examples by using Malaysia as a reference A countryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s culture influences the dominant personality characteristics of its population. Contemporary Work Cohorts. The society in which the employee grew up also affects values. The following are descriptions of the major cohorts of employees in the United Stare workforce. The four cohorts are Veterans, Boomers, Xers, and Nexters. Vete rans We call them Veterans (some use the label Traditionalists). Those who are aged 65(+) who entered workforce during the 1950s through 1960s. Veterans believe in the value of hard work, remaining the status quo, and respect authority. Veterans work hard and are practical. There is a heavy emphasis on the RVS terminal values of a comfortable life and family security. Boomers Boomers are the largest cohort. Boomers entered the workforce from 1965 through 1985. Tend to distrust authority and place a great deal of emphasis on their achievement and successful. Boomers are hard working. RVS terminal values emphasized are sense of accomplishment and social recognition Xers These employees started from 1985 through 2000. Xers value flexibility, life options, and job satisfaction. Family and relationships are very important and Xers are very skeptical people, especially toward authority. Xers like money but value increased leisure time. Xers are less willing to sacrifice for employers. RVS emphasis is true friendship, happiness and friendship. Nexters Starting in 2000, the most recent cohort has high expectation and expects meaning from their work. Very motivated by money and material possessions, Nexters like teamwork but they are very self-reliant. Nexters are high scores in RVS on freedom and a comfortable life. The average employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s work-life in Malaysia is 50 years old. In question one, the researcher would like to discuss about the employees those working in the organization at the age of 25 to 40 years old, which fall under category Xers. Majority of them have proof to value flexibility and achievement of their jobs. This is because they had gained lot of experience throughout their life and know what it takes to achieve their target. Some of them are two-career parents and computers. Xers are sense of family. Their family and friends are very important to them. Those are marriage and have children; they always spen d their free time for family and friends like travelling, picnic and so on. Xers are skeptical people. They do not easily to trust someone especially toward business or money. In the researcher organization, Xers are very careful to do everything and do not easily to trust people. Although some people try to give them some opinion; they will consider it in a few times before make every decision. Xers are worries about the other people will betrayed them and take over their authority control. In between, Xers dislike complying with the rule in the organization. Normally, Xers do not follow the rule has set by the organization. For example, Xers do not like to wear company T-Shirt on every Friday. In fact, this is compulsory for every employee to wear company T-shirt on every Friday. Xers do not follow the rules because they think that is not as much important instead of more focus on the achievement the goals of organization. Describe three of the decision-making biases based o n the scenario of the current organization by the following the errors involved, the circumstances and the effects. Research shows that decision making biases have occur in the researcherÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s organization was examined as below. To gain an understanding of how the negative phenomenon happen in the company which is caused the decision making biases, this research is focus on (1) the errors involved , (2) the circumstances, and (3) the effects of these biases toward the outcomes of the situations. There are the several scenarios of decision making biases. Each is based on a different part of assumptions and offer unique insight into the decisions making biases process. Let begin with the orderly explanation of decision making biases. Scenario 1 Overconfidence Bias The overconfidence bias relates to our tendency to be over-confident about estimates or forecasts. This bias is particularly occurs when decision makers tend to think that they know more than they a ctually do and hold unrealistically positive views of themselves and their performance in the company. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "An Organisational Behaviour Assignment" essay for you Create order The error involved Based on the research, a problem exists when the researcher who thinks that is an invaluable to the organization however almost everyone could actually do the same job. The researcher might show overconfidence by coming late to work; early finish work and unexcused absence because of thinks can control everything in the company and not to get fired by the employer. The circumstance The researcherÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s organization planning to organize a charity to visit to the orphanage and the visit date is just around the corner. Thus, every department need to be group together to have a systematic discussion in order arrange the schedule time table, preparation for performance, preparation for meal, sponsorship, budget listing and so on. As this is a charity event organized by the researcherÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s organization for the first time, the organization attaches great importance and attention to every detail. The researcherÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s organization also worry about canÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t make it successfully complete with the selected day. The researcher thinks that is no difficulty to reach the successful and shows arrogant to make a promise that able to complete all of the process deal with the dateline. Certainly, the organization very satisfies and hopes to hear the good news soon. However, the bad dream began to happen. During the peak perio d, every employee is rushing to their responsibilities job in everyday like doing report, achieve sales target and so on. Sometimes the employees are required to stay back after working hour. Wherefore the employee cannot focus on other programs except their own job. The researcher easily agrees by complete the task before deadline without the initial discussion with the related department. The researcher did not get consent and consult of the department. Eventually, the charity visiting program cannot reach to accomplishment of the best way. The researcherÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s organization cannot schedule to find sponsors for sponsoring this charity event funding, leading to spend more on such planning. The effect toward the outcome In this matter, apparently a person overconfidence performance leads everyone had implicated innocent. Beside this, many of the negative problems may occur in the researcherÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s organization. After this incident, a lot of negative minded appear on the employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s brain, the employee will start to feel frustration and dissatisfaction with the overconfidence attitude of researcher. Therefore, the researcherÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s organization may risk the case of conflict among employees. In addition, the overconfidence attitude of the researcher will make the company leads to unnecessary costs spend. Scenario 2 Immediate gratification bias The immediate gratification bias is describes about the decision makers who tend to want immediate rewards and avoid immediate costs. It which mean as neglect the future outcome of the company when simply give importance to those decision choices which have quick achievement. The error involved This is a case based on immediate gratification bias. The researcher only focuses on the big picture earning points by setting the strict rules and force the employees comply with these rule in order to reach the sales target. Although the sales target is reached, the company did not reward the employee who been contributed for the organization. (2) The circumstance In a few months is the advent of the Chinese New Year, the researcher organization decided to increase the turnover and pushing the organizations earnings to highest point. The organization decided to sales staff department overtime in order to achieve the turnover target. Therefore, the researcher set a number of strict rules aim to make sure all the sales people are able to reach the target set in the shortest time. The rules are require employees cannot on leave on this following months, be sure to receive a daily limit quota of orders of customer, work for at least nine hours in everyday. Although the employee s feel that very strict or even feel very harsh with the organization. Employees think that can help the company to earn greater profits during this time, they will not be mistreated, or bonus would certainly be more than pass year. Employees will therefore pick up more business more aggressively, sacrificing the time for company family and even personal health problems in order to achieve sales target. In just two months, after staff efforts and hard work, the organizations turnover increased significantly as expected by 30% of all of the shareholders are satisfied. At this moment, all the staffs are very excited to wait for the researcher to request with the organization in order to increase bonus payment of good news, but the researcher refuse to help the employee to send their request to the company. By the opposite, the researcher aspect the employee should earn the maximum profit for the company. (3) The effect toward the outcome This had created a circumstance of dis satisfaction among the rest of the employee. The employees feel frustration with the organization. Many good and capable staffs cannot stand to the unfair treatment have resign and left, such action had negatively resulted to the organization. Scenario 3 Self-serving Bias The self-serving bias found as exhibited by decision makers who are quick to take credit for their successful and blame failure on outside factors. Some research has shifted focus to physiological manipulations, such as emotional inducement and neural activation, in an attempt to better understand the biological mechanisms that contribute to the self-serving bias. The error involved Based on the research, the researcher had made this bias in the organization. The researcher only focuses on the strength or successful but overlook the error making. Beside this, the researcher refused to appreciate the advice given by the organization but blame failure on others reason. The circumstance For one of the example based on the researcherÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s organization, the top management decide to select certain employees to attend training course. The training courses aim to advocating working knowledge of the employee. In addition, through training of employees who will allow to have the opportunity for promotion and increase salary. Employees are actively to participate in training courses. The employees are required to pass with the official test. Therefore, only qualified employees are eligible to be admitted because of the limited quantity of employee needed. The researcher compares over favorable to others. The researcher thinks is much better than other employees because have more working experience and well understanding with the organization. The researcher didnÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t get a well prepare before the test. At the end, the researcher has failed with the test. The researcher dissatisfies with the result and blames to the top management. The effect toward the outcome The impact of the self-serving bias will brings the researcher make the decision but not earning the best interest to the organization. This phenomenon is unhealthy may caused easier to make error decision while planning certain programme. Conclusion Recommendations In conclude, the research show to understand that an individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s values differ from, but tend to reflect, the societal values of the period in which they grew up can be a valuable aid in predicting behavior. The perceived decline in business ethics has been linked by some authors to cohorts. The veterans, who had high organizational loyalty, began leaving management at about the time that ethics were seen to decline in the late 1970s. Since managerial behaviors are one of the strongest influencers of organizational ethics, changing from a loyal cohort to one more driven by their own needs, (boomers), may explain the drop in ethical standards. It is possible that standards will rise when Xers managers take over as they value loyalty in relationship. In addition, the report shows that decision making is one of the primary responsibilities when perform duties in workplace. Decision making is means as to the end. It signifies identifying and choosing alternative methods lead to a desired state of affairs. The process begins with a problem and ends when a solution has been selected. On the contrary, personal biases can be divisive forces within a decision processes when they often lead to less than ideal outcomes for decision makers. People make a variety of mistakes when making decisions. These mistakes are generally associated with a host of biases that occur when we use judgmental heuristics. Primarily it is very important to understand biases in order to overcome it. There contain few methods to try out to overcome unconscious and hidden biases. Understanding bias Consider various ways you can gain some insight into your bias. Explore the dynamic of biases. Working on the bias Recognize that the specific bias exists. Consider why it is usually so difficult to remove biases. Ask yourself questions. Meet the object of your bias head on with an open mind. Ultimately take things a step at a time. References The McGraw-Hill Companies (2001), Organization Behaviour, Inc.1221 Avenue of the America, New York, NY, 10020. [Accessed 10th March 2014] Barrow, Colin (2009), The 30 day MBA, Great Britain and the United States, Kogan Page Limited. [Accessed 10th March 2014] Personality and Values [Online] Available at: https://www.prenhall.com/behindthebook/0132431521/pdf/Robbins_CH03.pdf [Accessed: 10th Mar 2014]. Michael Chibnik, American Anthropologist, volume 57, Issue 6, Article first published online: 28 OCT 2009 [online] Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1525/aa.1955.57.6.02a00130/pdf [Accessed: 10th Mar 2014]. Internations.org. 2014. Working in Malaysia. [Online] Available at: https://www.internations.org/malaysia-expats/guide/working-in-malaysia-15373 [Accessed: 10th Mar 2014]. Organization Behavior Page 1
Friday, December 27, 2019
The definition of success and routes to success may be different, but it is undeniable that all people want to succeed in their lives. According to Malcolm Gladwell, success is seen as an achievement coming from hidden opportunities, effort, diverse backgrounds, or cultural legacy, in life. However, I believe education is one of the factors that contribute the achievement of individuals. There are flaws or inequalities in the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ education system, and one of these is the use of standardized test which is the issue that comes in between the individual and their successes. In order to increase the chance of success for an individual, standardized testing should be revoked from education because it does not measure the creativity and knowledge of students which play important roles for one to succeed. Standardized testing is not a reliable way to measure the performance because it does not measure the skills and knowledge in a more meaningful way like creativity, which plays a key role to attain high level of achievement. The tests contain a number of items whose comments and administration is done in uniform procedures. For the reason that most of the tests are multiple choices, the results of the test are reflected by intellectual ability; however, the test discourages creativity skill of students, which plays an important role to be successful. In Malcolm GladwellÃ¢â¬â¢s book Ã¢â¬Å"Outliers: The Stories of Success,Ã¢â¬ he argues that the creativity of student plays anShow MoreRelatedStandardized Testing And High School Education888 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"Standardized testing has swelled and mutatedÃ¢â¬ ¦to the point that it now threatens to swallow our schools wholeÃ¢â¬ (Kohn, 2000). Comparing standardized testing to a swelling monster that is taking over the s chool systems is a bit of a reach but there is some weight to this statement. Standardized tests have become so frequent in elementary and high school education that they have become the most important tool that is used by school boards and colleges to determine a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s achievements, but howRead More The Controversy of Standardized Testing Essay1492 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Controversy of Standardized Testing Ã¢â¬Å"No issue in the U.S. Education is more controversial than (standardized) testing. Some people view it as the linchpin of serious reform and improvement, others as a menace to quality teaching and learningÃ¢â¬ (Phelps). A tool that educators use to learn about students and their learning capabilities is the standardized test. Standardized tests are designed to give a common measure of a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. Popular tests include the SAT, IQ tests, RegentsRead MoreThe Negative Effects Of Standardized Testing1120 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesadverse effects of standardized testing.Ã¢â¬ Testing has evolved over time from basic reading, writing, and arithmetic to curriculum based on standardized testing such as the ACT, SAT, and TCAP. Many years ago, students did not have to take as many tests, and there were not as many opportunities for different types of classes. Schools have evolved as standardized test evolved, and this has forced teachers to evolve as well. As time progressed, the frequency of these standardized test increased and theRead MoreStandard Based Learning And Its Impact On Education1371 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesStandard based learning has led to the demise of public education for years. Standard based learning is an educational system that measures studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ achievement and mastery of skills by their performance on assessments. 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Therefore , standardized testing was made to see how much intelligence a person has on a topic .However standardized tests donÃ¢â¬â¢t measure how people learn in a classroom . standardized testing is not a good way to test students because tests donÃ¢â¬â¢t measure an individual intelligence , tests should not be used to determine funding for school , the teachers cheat on the tests to protect the students ,and its ethically wrong to give a lot of standardized tests to kids . Teachers